shutter speed principle


30 secs – 1 sec – For shooting twilight & night photography scenes with a tripod
1 sec – 1/15 sec – For creating movement effect ( blur ) in shooting waterfalls, water scenes in a landscape
1/15 – 1/60 sec – For shooting interior club scenes, restaurant interiors, home lighting
1/30 – 1/125 sec – For shooting portraits with natural light and existing lighting..For shooting with flash. Shooting outdoor scenes in bright and natural light.
1/250- 1/1000 sec – For shooting moving objects ,people and cars in bright lighting conditions, Beach scenes.
1/1000- 1/8000 sec. – For capturing fast moving cars, Olympic sports,

aperture principle


Definition – Aperture is expressed in F stops . The amount of light coming to the lens
is determined by the size of the aperture of the lens iris. The bigger the aperture

F stop ( lens opening ), the more light comes in. the smaller the aperture, the less light is admitted .
F1.8 is a very big lens opening versus F11.0 which is a smaller opening. Each lens has a maximum & minimum aperture. The best lenses ( and more expensive quality ) have large apertures ( F stops ) like the 50mm 1.4 portrait lens, the 85mm 1.8, 200mm 2.8 lens.

F1.8- F2.8 – Great for shooting portraits, fashion, sports, and macro shots with shallow depth of field. Shallow depth of field mean background behind the subject matter is out of focus or blurry. Fast lenses with F1.8 and F2.8 are great for getting rid of clutter in the background & creating good bokeh. These apertures are great for shooting in low lighting conditions.

F4.0- F5.6 – Good for medium portrait shots or telephoto taken with a prime or telephoto zoom lens ( like Canon’s 70-200mm F4). At these apertures, with a good telephoto, you can still shoot with a good background blur, Longer telephoto lenses at 5.6 still produces a good background blur depending on lens quality.

F8.0 – This is the sharpest F-stop in any optical camera lens for shooting film or digital. This aperture produces the a very good depth of field esp. in wide angle lenses ( 11-24mm )and normal lenses ( 50mm ) for full sensor digital cameras. Practical aperture to use in flash photography at events and weddings.

F11- F22 – These F stops produces very high depth of fields in wide angle, normal, and short telephoto lenses. To get the best resolution in digital., shoot at F11.0 or F16. Best resolution for shooting landscapes and cityscapes.



Speed is a measurement of how much light is needed to make a usable image on light-sensitive material such as film – in other words, a measure of sensitivity. “Faster” film requires less light, and so can be exposed at a faster shutter speed or smaller aperture. Film speed is represented on a numeric scale; on most scales, the higher the scale number, the less light that is required to expose the film.

On digital cameras, the higher you go on the ISO ( 800 – 3200 ), the more the sensor is sensitive to light. For most available light photography I recommend 1600 ISO indoors in a residence, restaurant, or a building. Outdoors in bright light use anywhere from 100 to 400 ISO. In overcast or twilight conditions start with 800 ISO.

Triangle of Exposure

Also learn the triangle of exposure which is the relationship between film speed, aperture, and shutter speed. This is a must learn basic principle for all beginning photographers

exposure triangle